Increased Precautions We're Taking in Response to the Coronavirus
As updates on the impact of the coronavirus continue to be released, we want to take a moment to inform you of the heightened preventative measures we have put in place at Delta Specialty Hospital to keep our patients, their families, and our employees safe. All efforts are guided by and in adherence to the recommendations distributed by the CDC.

Please note that for the safety of our patients, their families, and our staff, on-site visitation is no longer allowed at Delta Specialty Hospital.

  • This restriction has been implemented in compliance with updated corporate and state regulations to further reduce the risks associated with COVID-19.
  • We are offering visitation through telehealth services so that our patients can remain connected to their loved ones.
  • Alternate methods of communication for other services are being vetted and may be offered when deemed clinically appropriate.

For specific information regarding these changes and limitations, please contact us directly.

CDC updates are consistently monitored to ensure that all guidance followed is based on the latest information released.

  • All staff has received infection prevention and control training.
  • Thorough disinfection and hygiene guidance has been provided.
  • Patient care supplies such as masks and hand sanitizer are being monitored and utilized.
  • Temperature and symptom screening protocols are in place for all patients and staff.
  • Social distancing strategies have been implemented to ensure that patients and staff maintain proper distance from one another at all times.
  • Cleaning service contracts have been reviewed for additional support.
  • Personal protective equipment items are routinely checked to ensure proper and secure storage.
  • CDC informational posters are on display to provide important reminders on proper infection prevention procedures.
  • We are in communication with our local health department to receive important community-specific updates.

The safety of our patients, their families, and our employees is our top priority, and we will remain steadfast in our efforts to reduce any risk associated with COVID-19.

The CDC has provided a list of easy tips that can help prevent the spread of the coronavirus.

  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue and then immediately dispose of the tissue.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.
  • Clean and disinfect objects and surfaces that are frequently touched.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
  • Stay home when you are sick, except to get medical care.

For detailed information on COVID-19, please visit https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html

Opiate Abuse Signs, Symptoms & Effects

Delta Specialty Hospital helps individuals struggling with alcohol or drug addiction build a strong foundation for long-term recovery. Serving Memphis, TN, Delta is the leading provider of substance abuse recovery.

Understanding Opioids

Learn about opioid and substance abuse

Opioids are a group of natural, partially synthetic, or synthetic drugs derived from the poppy plant or chemically synthesized in laboratory settings. This class of drugs includes both legal and illegal drugs. Legally prescribed opioids include morphine, codeine, and oxycodone. Illegal opioids include heroin.

Opioids are used to help individuals cope with pain. They bind to natural opioid receptors in the brain, mimicking specific chemicals that are related to sensations of pain relief, pleasure, and reward. When used as prescribed, legal opioids are one of the most effective forms of pain relief, especially when the pain is severe or other attempts to relieve the pain have proven unsuccessful. However, since opioids have both pain relieving properties and positive psychological properties, they are among the most abused types of substances currently available.

When opioids are abused or when illegal opioids, which have a significantly higher potency, are taken usually, the route of administration is altered. Often pills are ground and the powdered form is snorted, smoked, or mixed with water and injected. These methods of using the substance increase the speed of absorption, leading to a “rush,” a fast acting strong effect of positive sensations. Even when taken as prescribed however, the potential for abuse and addiction is high and treatment may be required. Repeated use can lead to physical dependence within 4-6 weeks, however psychological addiction can result in as little as two days.

Statistics

Opioid addiction statistics

In adults age 18 and over in the U.S. the prevalence rate of opioid use disorder has been estimated at .37 %. As there are many opioid users that are incarcerated at any given point, this rate is likely an underestimate.

While gender differences have been cited showing prevalence rates twice as high in men than in women (.49 percent compared to .26% respectively), these rates differ based on the type of drug. For legally prescribed narcotics, prevalence rates in men are only one and a half times the rates in women, while men abuse heroin 3 times as much as women. The lowest prevalence rates are found in those over the age of 64 (.09%), while the highest rates occur in those under the age of 30 (.29 %).

Co-Occurring Disorders

Opioid addiction and co-occurring disorders

There are a number of disorders that co-occur with opioids addiction. The most commonly co-occurring disorder with any substance abuse disorder is another substance abuse disorder. Disorders that are co-morbid to opioid addiction include:

  • Tobacco use
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Cannabis abuse
  • Stimulant abuse
  • Benzodiazepine abuse
  • Depression
  • Dysthymia
  • Anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
  • History of conduct disorder in childhood or adolescence

Causes and Risk Factors

Causes and risk factors of opioid addiction

There is no direct evidence supporting an individual cause to explain any specific substance abuse disorder. However, research has supported links between certain factors and the subsequent development of substance related problems.

Genetic Factors– Family studies have shown that when an individual has a first degree relative with an opioid addiction they are more likely to develop the disorder than those who don’t have a similar family history.

Indirect Genetic Influences – It appears that some potential causes may function through genetic influences. For example, temperamental qualities, such as novelty seeking and impulsivity, believed to be inborn, have been linked to an increased risk for opioid addiction. Additionally, our nature influences what types of people we choose to be around. Thus, while peers can influence our choices as far as beginning and continuing to use a substance, we decide which peer groups to which we want to belong. Factors such as these are thought to result from an interaction between heredity and environment.

Coping Factors – For individuals who have difficulty tolerating negative mood states, due to the failure to learn effective coping mechanisms in childhood and adolescence, when distressed the search for relief may lead to substance use of opioids in particular, due to the pleasant effects that can counteract their negative mood. The resulting surge of euphoria can lead quickly to addiction.

Pleasure Experienced in the Brain – Everyone enjoys the experience of pleasure. It is important enough to our well-being that there is a pleasure and reward center located in our brains and specific chemicals responsible for neural communication are strongly related to our ability to experience pleasure, happiness, joy, and excitement. When we take opioids, the resulting sudden rush of pleasure we experience is stronger than what we may normally experience on a daily basis.

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of meth addiction

Mood/Psychological symptoms:

  • Increased general anxiety
  • Anxiety attacks
  • Euphoria
  • Psychosis
  • Improved self-esteem
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Lowered motivation

Behavioral symptoms:

  • Opioids are used for longer or at a greater amount than intended
  • Unsuccessful attempts to decrease the amount taken
  • Large amount of time spent obtaining, using, or recovering from the drug
  • Abandonment of important activities

Physical symptoms:

  • Improved alertness
  • Increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli
  • Constricted blood vessels
  • Increased heart rate
  • High blood pressure
  • Increased energy
  • Decreased appetite
  • Increased sexual arousal
  • Physical agitation
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Over arousal and hyper-vigilance

Effects

Effects of opioid addiction

Some of the side effects of opioid use include:

  • Fatigue
  • Constipation
  • Breathlessness
  • A sense of elation
  • Bronchospasm
  • Physical and psychological dependence
  • Nausea
  • Confusion
  • Depressed respiration and difficulty breathing
  • Death (often due to use of more than one substance)
  • Chest pain

Withdrawal Symptoms

Withdrawal symptoms of opioid addiction

Some of the common withdrawal effects associated with stopping the use of opioids include:

  • Physical and psychological cravings
  • Nausea
  • Stomach pain
  • Cold sweat
  • Chills
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Agitation
  • Anxiety
  • Muscle tension
  • Shaking or quivering
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Enlarged pupils
  • Pain in the bones

I was very addicted to opiates and went to Delta Specialty Hospital for treatment and they helped me recover. I am now celebrating 2 years of sobriety.

– Former Patient
Trusted Excellence
  • Memphis Chamber of Commerce
  • National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)
  • Professional Network on Aging
  • Tennessee Hospital Association
  • Tennessee Suicide Prevention Network
  • The Joint Commission (JCAHO) Gold Seal of Approval
  • The Jason Foundation